The development of portable and portable equipment and their greater accessibility has allowed the use of bedside ultrasound (“point of care ultrasonography”). General practitioners have begun to use this technique as a complementary tool to the medical history and physical examination, to rule out or confirm a suspected diagnosis without attempting to perform a regulated ultrasound study (“focused ultrasonography”). Thus, the concept of basic clinical ultrasound arises as a complementary examination that, quickly and in the place where the patient is cared for, seeks to answer a specific clinical question with dichotomous answers (for example: Is there hydronephrosis? Is there systolic dysfunction? left ventricle?). Basic clinical ultrasound “enhances” the clinician's senses and, in this way, improves the sensitivity of the physical examination and allows diagnoses to be made in the same medical act. Multiple studies have shown a good relationship between examinations performed by general practitioners after a limited period of training and specialized ultrasound in the evaluation of various parameters of clinical interest. Basic clinical echocardiography has probably been the most studied modality with good precision in detecting pericardial effusion and left ventricular systolic and diastolic dysfunction. Also the abdominal and vascular clinical ultrasound is reliable for the detection of cholelithiasis and cholecystitis, deep vein thrombosis, hydronephrosis and pathology of the abdominal aorta. Recently, in a study by the Clinical Ultrasound Group of the Spanish Society of Internal Medicine, several emergency physicians, after a short period of training in ultrasound, showed adequate training (sensitivity of 92.6% and specificity of 89%) in the diagnosis of cholecystitis, hydronephrosis, deep vein thrombosis and different cardiovascular problems. In addition, ultrasound allows to guide invasive procedures (venous access, thoracentesis, paracentesis) performed daily by clinicians with a notable reduction in the risk of complications, which makes it recommended as a standard of care in multiple health systems.
Basic clinical ultrasound has the added value of allowing the problem of the patient to be resolved or managed in the same clinical act, it is a complement to the traditional clinical activity that provides relevant information in multiple settings and increases the ability of the physician to solve the problems of the patient. sick. Therefore, it seems appropriate to train our professionals in the practice of basic clinical ultrasound, a tool that has already become a standard of care for some indications and it is foreseeable that it will do so for many others. For this, in this course we intend to have national references within the field of clinical ultrasound with extensive clinical, teaching and research experience in this matter, such as Drs. Gonzalo García de Casasola and Juan Torres Macho who have participated as directors and coordinators in multiple clinical ultrasound courses including the "Diploma in Clinical Ultrasound" by the Complutense University of Madrid in 2014-2015 and the University Extension Course "Clinical Ultrasound" by the University of Barcelona currently under development.
Basic or general skillsThis activity is aimed at developing competence in basic clinical ultrasound for medical professionals and residents. Through a block of online theoretical training and another block of face-to-face practical training, it is intended that students acquire the necessary skills for the implementation and development of basic clinical ultrasound in the professional practice of clinical medicine. The student will carry out in this course the initial phase of the essential “learning curve” that allows him to apply clinical ultrasound in prevalent pathologies where it has proven its usefulness.
The general competencies that are intended to be developed with this course are:
A) Technical skills:Learning the proper management of the ultrasound system and its modalities and adjustments to obtain images of adequate quality.
Obtaining ultrasound images of echocardiography, thoracic ultrasound, basic abdominal, musculoskeletal, articular and vascular.
Performing invasive procedures guided by ultrasound (paracentesis, thoracentesis, arthrocentesis and cannulation of central venous accesses)B) Clinical competences:Interpretation of the ultrasound images obtained.
Development of diagnostic-therapeutic reasoning based on ultrasound findings. Incorporation of basic clinical ultrasound in clinical reasoning and therapeutic management.Specific competencesThe specific competencies that are intended to be developed with this course are:
Know the general indications for basic clinical ultrasound.
Know the basic fundamentals of ultrasound and learn to use ultrasound equipment (probes, adjustments, modalities, technical limitations).
Know and acquire skills in the main anatomical planes and projections used for clinical ultrasound.
Detect the presence of free intraperitoneal, intrapleural and / or pericardial fluid.
Basic evaluation of the kidney and urinary bladder.
Evaluation of the inferior vena cava and suprahepatic veins.
Ultrasound study of the gallbladder and bile duct.
Assessment of abdominal aortic diameter and acute aortic syndrome.
Management of echocardiography with assessment of left ventricular function, size and function of the right ventricle, size of the left atrium, assessment of left ventricular hypertrophy, detection of pericardial effusion and basic detection of valvular heart disease.
Detection of deep vein thrombosis.
Pulmonary evaluation by ultrasound.
Detection of complications of soft tissue infections (collections, gas).
Detection of joint pathology (joint effusion, synovitis, erosions) and tendon (tendinitis / tendinosis, rupture).
Use of ultrasound to guide procedures (central and peripheral venous access, paracentesis, thoracentesis, lumbar puncture).
Use of multi-organ clinical ultrasound in specific clinical scenarios: dyspnea, hypotension, suspected PE, chest pain, lower limb edema.
Know and handle applications in development of clinical ultrasound: ultrasound in systemic autoimmune diseases, clinical ultrasound in infectious diseases and imported pathology.RecipientsNumber of places offered: maximum 80, minimum 40The Master is aimed at the following groups:
Specialists in Internal Medicine.
Specialists in Family and Community Medicine.
Intensive Medicine Specialists.
Physicians in training as resident interns in any of these specialties.
Physicians from other specialties who carry out their activity in emergency and emergency services.
In the same way and whenever there are vacancies, general practitioners as well as other related disciplines and specialties.Academic programModule I. Introduction to clinical ultrasound (4 ECTS).
Module II. Main modalities of clinical ultrasound (22 ECTS).
Module III. Clinical ultrasound practice I (2 ECTS).
Module IV. Applications of clinical ultrasound in healthcare practice (24 ECTS).
Module V. Clinical ultrasound practice II (2 ECTS).
Final Master's Thesis (6 credits).